Code-mixing in Urdu language
Media (electronic and print media) no doubt has played an effective role in the development of communication but at the same time has increased the phenomenon of code-mixing as being noticed in various researches made in the field. We can say that media is playing a two dimensional role i.e. on one hand it reflects the behavior of the society and on the other hand influences and shapes the attitude of the society. As English Language is taken as a language of educated and elite class in Pakistan, so mixing of English code in Urdu has become a common social activity. In a multilingual society, though, the process is unavoidable but alarming and has given rise to issues and questions. There is a need to check and take notice against it as it is rapidly changing Urdu language.
Origin of code-mixing in Urdu language was started from “Urdu Assan Tehreek” started by Sir Sayed Ahmed khan. In his view, simple language influences the masses to a large extent. Since 1947, Urdu has been influenced by English language. Many words of English Language are known and used by people who have never studied the language. Words like plate, glass, television, dressing table, sorry, thank you, are frequently used in routine communication without any awareness of code-mixing.
It has been concluded by several researchers around the world that “English has become inescapable trend”. Hence, Much attention is required to keep the balance of code-mixing to prohibit confusion and cultural interference. The researchers have concluded that the abbreviation like ‘CD’, ’DVD’, ’SMS’, ’VIP’ were used to make news simple and easy to understand. Furthermore, it’s also noticed around the world that, code-mixing in languages is mainly at word-level rarely as phrasal level.
Urdu language is rich in vocabulary besides, having some shortage in the vocabulary related to science and technology and Government office register. . The reason is that the research and progress in the field of science and technology has been made by the west hence, the terminology is in English language being an official language of Pakistan dominates all important departments and spheres of the country Analysis of the data proved that words related to official departments were used in English, although Urdu language has substitute of these words. For example,
1. Words related to government
Chairman, high court, Supreme Court, Chief Justice, meeting, assembly, notification and many more (see appendix
2. Words related to court
Warrant, law and order, magistrate, jail, supreme court.
3. Words related to politics
Abbreviations of all political party names such as PPP, MQM, JUI, PTI, BNP etc.
4. Words related to science and technology
Email, website, mobile phone, telephone, drone, revolver, rifle, smg
Moreover, words in common use like name of colors and some objects were also noted in English language. For example white, navy blue, red, coat, jacket, trousers etc.
First of all there is a need of a language policy to be made. Not only Government but media should also make a Language policy for News. The news reporters should be offered workshops and training to use words of Urdu Language in the news, if they exist. This would
help people knowing equivalence Urdu Language words, subsequently their use also.